[The Firm As Pilot Study Participant]
Validity: The determination whether the researcher (i.e., using the questionnaire) or survey was effective in obtaining what was intended to obtain (qualitative) or measuring what was intended to measure (quantitative; Leedy, 1997). Validity measures (checks) can be obtain through the process of pilot- and pre-test studies (Collins, 2003).
Internal Validity: Involves remaining free "from bias in forming conclusions in view of the data" (Leedy, p. 34). While comparing measures, the observer should make all attempts to remain bias (face validity). Conclusions (constructs) are formed based on the standard measure (patterns; criterion validity).
External Validity: Involves generalizing the conclusion reached through observation of a sample to the universe or other cases. After the constructs have been identified and measured by the standard (criterion validity), the constructs can be measured again (retested) using different measures (construct validity). If measures yield same or similar results (2-way correspondence), which are based on the data and not the observer (face validity), the degree of the accuracy (content validity) of the questions can be accessed and the degree of the reliability of the instrument can be established (Leedy).
Pilot-Testing: Involves examining the questionnaire "in terms of length, flow, salience, ease of administration and response and acceptability to respondents . . . [to] detect overt [unhidden] problems that disrupt the response elicitation process" (focus: the survey process; Collins, 2003, p. 231)
Pre-Testing: Involves "establishing whether respondents can understand the question concept or task. . . in a consistent way and in a way the researcher intended to provide evidence of causes . . .[and] evidence of covert [hidden] problems" (focus: the questionnaire; Collins, p. 231)
Types of Pre-Testing: [decipher how subjects solve problems or remember events (Collins)]
Test-Retesting: Not conducted; However, click here to learn more about establishing the reliability of instruments
Post-Testing: Not conducted; used in quantitative research (see Leedy, 1997, pp. 233-236). However, click here to learn more about establishing reliability of instruments
Dr. Brenda Nelson-Porter will take part in the pilot- and pre-test study by answering the research questions and providing a 1- to 2- paragraph critique (assessment) of the questions and questionnaire.
Telephone. Call to schedule a one-on-one tele-phone interview: Sorry, no face-to-face or focus-group interview.
Mail. Mail instrument to address indicated on the invoice along with a self-addressed stamped envelop or the survey/questionnaire will not be returned.
e-Mail. Email survey to firstname.lastname@example.org
AREAS OF STUDIES OF INTEREST; HOWEVER, NOT LIMITED TO
Diversity (Women and Minority)
|Number of Questions||Price|
When signed and payment are received, pilot/pre-testing will commence. Allow up to 5-7 days for return of mail or e-mail survey or questionnaire. Brigette's does not guarantee that instrument will obtained the data or desire results. No refunds will be provided for prepaid contracts.
Collins, D. (2003). Pretesting survey instruments: An
overview of cognitive methods.
Quality of Life Research, 12(3), 229.
Leedy, P. D. (1997). Practical research: Planning and design (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.